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bmw automobile

Automobile bmw

Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW) is a German automobile and motorcycle manufacturing company. Founded in 1916, it is known for its performance and luxury vehicles. It owns and produces the MINI brand, and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars.

Company history
After World War I, BMW was forced to cease aircraft (engine) production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. The company consequently shifted to motorcycle production in 1923 once the restrictions of the treaty started to be lifted, followed by automobiles in 1928.
The circular blue and white BMW logo or roundel is often alleged to portray the movement of an airplane propeller, to signify the white blades cutting through the blue sky - an interpretation that BMW adopted for convenience in 1929, which was actually twelve years after the roundel was created. In fact, the emblem evolved from the circular Rapp Motorenwerke company logo, from which the BMW company grew. The Rapp logo was combined with the blue and white colors of the flag of Bavaria to produce the BMW roundel so familiar today.
BMW's first significant aircraft engine was the BMW IIIa inline-six liquid-cooled engine of 1918, much preferred for its high-altitude performance. With German rearmament in the 1930s, the company again began producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe. Among its successful WWII engine designs were the BMW 132 and BMW 801 air-cooled radial engines, and the pioneering BMW 003 axial-flow turbojet, which powered the tiny, 1944-45-era jet-powered "emergency fighter", the Heinkel He 162 Salamander, and was tested in the A-1b version of the world's first jet fighter, the Messerschmitt Me 262.


By 1959 the automotive division of BMW was in financial difficulties and a shareholders meeting was held to decide whether to go into liquidation or find a way of carrying on. It was decided to carry on and to try to cash in on the current economy car boom enjoyed so successfully by some of Germany's ex-aircraft manufacturers such as Messerschmitt and Heinkel. Therefore the rights to manufacture the tiny Italian Iso Isetta were bought using a modified form of BMW's own motorcycle engine. This was moderately successful and helped the company get back on its feet. The dominating shareholder of the BMW Aktiengesellschaft since 1959 is the Quandt family, which owns about 46% of the stock. The rest is in public float.
In 1992, BMW acquired a large stake in Californian-based industrial design studio DesignworksUSA, which the fully acquired in 1995. In 1994, BMW bought the British Rover Group (which at the time consisted of the Rover, Land Rover and MG brands as well as the rights to defunct brands including Austin and Morris), and owned it for six years. By 2000, Rover was making huge losses and BMW decided to sell the combine. The MG and Rover brands were sold to the Phoenix Consortium to form MG Rover, while Land Rover was taken over by Ford. BMW, meanwhile, retained the rights to build the new MINI, which was launched in 2001.
Chief designer Chris Bangle announced his departure from BMW after serving on the design team for nearly seventeen years. He will be replaced by Adrian van Hooydonk, Bangle's former right hand man. Bangle was famously (or infamously) known for his radical designs such as the 2002 7-Series and the 2002 Z4.

Automobiles

Large-scale production models
New Class
Main article: BMW New Class
The New Class (German: Neue Klasse) was a line of compact sedans and coupes starting with the 1962 1500 and continuing through the last 2002s in 1977.
Powered by BMW's celebrated four-cylinder M10 engine, the New Class models featured a fully independent suspension, MacPherson struts in front, and front disc brakes. Initially a family of four-door sedans and two-door coupes, the New Class line was broadened to two-door sports sedans with the addition of the 02 Series 1600 and 2002 in 1966.
Sharing little in common with the rest the line beyond power train, the sporty siblings caught auto enthusiasts' attention and established BMW as an international brand. Precursors to the famed BMW 3 Series, the two-doors' success cemented the firm's future as an upper tier performance car maker.
New Class four-doors with numbers ending in "0" were replaced by the larger BMW 5 Series in 1972. The upscale 2000C and 2000CS coupes were replaced by the six-cylinder BMW E9, introduced in 1969 with the 2800CS. The 1600 two-door was discontinued in 1975, the 2002 replaced by the 320i in 1975.

1 Series
The 1 Series was launched globally in Autumn 2004 and shares many structural, chassis, powertrain, hardware and electronic elements with the larger 3 Series. The model was started to provide a lower point of entry into the BMW range as the 3 Series moved gradually up-market. Initially launched as a 5-door hatchback, a 3-door version was also launched in July 2007. The 1 Series is priced between the MINI and the current E90 3 Series. Because the coupe is the only rear wheel drive vehicle in its class, it is somewhat considered the successor to the BMW 2002.
The 1 Series coupe (E81) and convertible (E88) went on sale in the United States in model year 2008 as the 128i and the 135i. Other countries received the 120i and 125i in both platforms. The convertible, unlike the 3 Series convertible, uses a soft-top instead of a folding hardtop. This is lighter, cheaper to manufacture and preserves more trunk space than the folding hardtop would allow.
The 1 Series is the only car in its class to offer rear wheel drive, perfect (50:50) weight distribution and highly advanced independent aluminum suspension.

3 Series
The BMW 3 Series is an compact executive car manufactured since model year 1975. The 3 Series is currently in its fifth generation, the E90 Current models include the sport sedan (E90), station wagon (E91), coupe (E92), and convertible (E93). Since its first generation, the 3-Series is considered to be the benchmark, and the 3-Series' competitors are often judged on how close they come to this car. In some countries, it has even outsold significantly cheaper models, most notably Ford Mondeo in the UK.
The 3 series is one of BMW's most important models, as it accounts for a majority of its worldwide sales.

5 Series
A mid-size executive car. For model year 2008, BMW has revised the 5 Series with a slightly redesigned interior, subtle exterior details, and new motor options.
- The M5 is the Motorsport division's version of the 5 Series. The new M5 (built on the E60 5 series chassis) is powered by a F1-inspired V10 engine, producing 507 hp (378 kW) and is mated with a 7-speed sequential manual gearbox (SMG) transmission, which is capable of a top speed of about 330 km/h (production variants are restricted to 250 km/h, or 155 mph). BMW has also recently added a 6-speed manual transmission for 2007 and newer models.


6 Series
The 6 Series is BMW's grand touring luxury sport coupe, based on the 5 Series' platform. Currently available as the 650i in coupe (E63) and convertible (E64) models in the United States, elsewhere available in a diesel and petrol straight-6 option - 630i & 635d. The BMW 6 Series returned in 2004 after a 15-year absence from BMW's model lineup.
M6: A high performance version of the 6 Series. Developed by BMW's M Division, it is powered by the same 5.0 L V10 507 hp (378 kW) engine seen in the BMW M5. It is currently available in Russia, Europe, North America, South America, Australia and South Africa.


7 Series
BMW's full-size flagship executive sedan. Typically, BMW introduces many of their innovations first in the 7 Series. For example, the somewhat controversial iDrive system debuted in the 7 Series. The 7 Series Hydrogen, featuring one of the world's first hydrogen fueled electric engines, is fueled by liquid hydrogen and emits only water vapor. Since the infrastructure for refueling a hydrogen fueled engine is not widely available, the V12 engine also runs on gasoline. Numerous engines power the 7 Series worldwide. BMW offers diesel, straight 6, V8 and V12 motors, as well as the Alpina tuned supercharged V8. It is also available in a bulletproof version.

 
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